Bruegel I. The restructuring of London's labour force: migration and shifting opportunities, 1971-1991. Area 2000; 32 (1): 79-90.

The links between migration in and out of London and intergenerational social mobility are explored. Opportunities to enter high-grade jobs are greater in London, but so is the competition. The selectivity of migration explains the high social mobility associated with both in- and out-migration; those who stay in London are much less mobile, be they male or female. Black migrants to London do not share the fast escalator with white migrants, and London stayers come disproportionately from ethnic minority backgrounds. Socially mobile Londoners of both sexes leave far faster than the non-mobile, but women are less often 'creamed off'. Women with high-level jobs rarely leave; when they stay, they are less likely to leave the labour force. The selectivity of both types of migration concentrates 'under-achievement' on London stayers; racial discrimination may contribute to this outcome.